China and India development

The population of China is about 1Billion 300 Million,while this of India is about 1Biilion  by 2013.  The half of the world population live in these countries. The Chinese industrial take-off was more rapid than India. But  since 2000, India is growing very rapidly.

The main 8 goals of Millenium Development Goals (MDGs) can not be achieved so quickly in comparaison with Luxemlbourg.

 

We compare the progress in MDGs in two countries  for the period of 2001 tà 2005 and summarize the perspective of MDGs by 2015

in these countries.

The population of China is about 1Billion 300 Million,while this of India is about 1Biilion  by 2013.  The half of the world population live in these countries. The Chinese industrial take-off was more rapid than India. But  since 2000, India is growing very rapidly.

The main 8 goals of Millenium Development Goals (MDGs) can not be achieved so quickly in comparaison with Luxemlbourg.

 

We compare the progress in MDGs in two countries  for the period of 2001 tà 2005 and summarize the perspective of MDGs by 2015

in these countries.


The final assessment of UN MDGs in 2015 will be published by Idnetwork around 1 December 2015.  Our assessment will be honest and transparent in comparison with UN official assessment which  is diplomatic and superficial in order to carry on  the development strategies of  UNDP which failed.

Comparative view of poverty in China and India

 

For achieving Goal 1 of Millennium Development Goals ( MDGs) of the United Nations,  the target of UN Actions was to have, between 1990 and 2015, % of people whose income is less than $ 1 a day.

In India, this indicator passed from 49% in 1990 to 39% in 2005, 10% of decrease only.
However, in China, this indicator showed a drastic change from 60% in 1990 to 16% in 2005,
A decrease of 44%, in terms of annual decrease, almost 3% per year.
It is explained that although the income gap between rural area and urban
Area of China, the global growth helped to increase average income of people.
Although the UN said the economic growth in China during last 15 years allowed to  take out about 475 million people from extreme poverty, it did not take into account galloping  consumer price index in rural area.

 

In the area of Goal 2 of MDGs, the target was to ensure, by 2015,
boys and girls alike will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling.
The United Nations reported this year that the indicator of primary school graduation increased   from 79% in 2000 to 90% in 2007 in India.

 But in China it decreased from 99% in 2000 to 95% in 2007. 4% of decrease represents more or less 20 million children.
It reflected the increasing dropped-out of children from schooll in China.

 

As to Goal 6 of MDGs, Combat HIV/AIDs, malaria and other diseases, WHO has a target to reverse the spread of this HIV/AIDs by 2015. This situation is serious in Africa. The United Nations does not worry very much for India and China. The tuberculosis is diminishing  rapidly in India and China.

 

So far as Goal 7 of MDGs is concerned, Ensure environmental sustainability,
the UN reports that India increased the emission of C02 from 1 Billion of metric tons in 2000 to 2 Billions of metric tons in 2006, 100 % of increase.
China emitted 6,7 billions of metric tons of carbon dioxide in 2006, against 2,9
Billions of metric tons of CO2 in 1990. It represents 231% of increase in 15 past years.
In this regard, Ban Ki-Moon, UN Secretary-General, appealed to China and India to  be conscious of world crisis of ecosystem and come to propose a reasonable solution to world community during Copenhage Summit.

 

  Goal 8 of MDGs is to develop a global partnership for development. India and China  benefited from increasing access to world market and the transfer of technology.

The Chinese economy grew constantly during last 34 past years, with 9 % per year.
The main engine of its economic growth was the foreign direct investment and export.
While Chinese people bought several hendred Billions of Dollars of American public bond, the contribution of Chinese Government did not significantly  contributed to less developing countries.
It is time that Chinese people participate in funding  less developed countries. 

18 November 2009.

 

China’s progress on implementing the Millennium Development Goals. 

GOALS AND TARGETS 

  

WILL THE GOAL OR TARGET BE MET 

  

STATE OF NATIONAL SUPPORT 

  

Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger 

Target 1A: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than $ 1 a day 

  

Already met 

  

Strong 

Target 1B: Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young people 

  

Potentially 

  

Strong 

Target 1C: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger 

  

Already met 

  

Strong 

Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education

Target 2A: Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling

 

Already met

 

Strong

 

Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women

Target 3A: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of education no later than 2015

 

Likely

 

Strong

 

Goal 4: Reduce child mortality

Target 4A: Reduce by two thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate

 

Already met

 

Strong

Goal 5: Improve maternal health

Target 5A: Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio

 

Likely

 

Strong

Target 5B: Achieve, by 2015, universal access to reproductive health

 

Potentially

 

Good

Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases

Target 6A: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS

 

Likely

 

Strong

Target 6B: Achieve, by 2010, universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it

 

Potentially

 

Good

60 ChiNA’S PRoGReSS towARDS the MilleNNiUM DeveloPMeNt GoAlS 2010 RePoRt

Target 6C: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases

 

Likely

 

Good

Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability

Target 7A: Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs and reverse the loss of environmental resources

 

Likely

 

Strong

Target 7B: Reduce biodiversity loss, achieving, by 2010, a significant reduction in the rate of loss

 

Potentially

 

Good

Target 7C: Halve, by 2015, the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation

Likely

Strong

Target 7D: By 2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers

Likely

Strong

Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development

 

--

 

--

By 2010, it was clear that China’s economic development had brought both great opportunities and great challenges to achieving its MDGs. By 2015, China is likely to have fulfilled all of the MDGs, but more attention must be paid to the following three areas: promoting gender equality, reversing the spreading of HIV/Aids and stopping the loss of environmental resources. The Chinese Government is aware of the above issues and has adopted a series of measures to solve them. Particular attention is being paid to the disparity between urban and rural areas and regional disparities, and the competing needs of environment, society and the economy. We believe that by 2015, China will have achieved even greater success in its development and that it will have made even greater contributions to the implementation of the MDGs.

 

 


India’s progress on the MDGs for 2015

Target No. Target Description Progress Signs
1. Halve, between 1990 and 2015, proportion of population below national poverty line Δ
2. Halve, between 1990 and 2015, proportion of people who suffer from hunger Θ
3. Ensure that by 2015 children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary education ΔΔ
4. Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of education no later than 2015 Δ
5. Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate ΘΔ
6. Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio ΘΔ
7. Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS Δ
8. Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases ΘΔ
9. Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environmental resources ΔΔ
10. Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation ΔΘ
11. By 2020, to have achieved, a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers φ
12. In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communication ΔΔ

Δ : Moderately/almost nearly on track considering all indicators
Θ : Slow/almost off-track considering all indicators
ΔΔ : On-track or fast considering all indicators

 


The final assessment of UN MDGs in 2015 will be published by Idnetwork around 1 December 2015.  Our assessment will be honest and transparent in comparison with UN official assessment which  is diplomatic and superficial in order to carry on  the development strategies of  UNDP which failed.

Sustainable development (2017-2027)

Sustainable Development Goals

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

Jump to: navigation, search

 

The Sustainable Development Goals are a UN Initiative.

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), officially known as Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development is a set of seventeen aspirational "Global Goals" with 169 targets between them. Spearheaded by the United Nations, through a deliberative process involving its 194 Member States, as well as global civil society, the goals are contained in paragraph 54 United Nations Resolution A/RES/70/1 of 25 September 2015.[1] The Resolution is broader intergovernmental agreement that, while acting as the Post 2015 Development Agenda (successor to the Millennium Development Goals), builds on the Principles agreed upon under Resolution A/RES/66/288, popularly known as The Future We Want.[2] The SDGs were in large measure informed by the oft quoted assertion by United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon that "there can be no Plan B, because there is no Planet B."

On 19 July 2014, the UN General Assembly's Open Working Group (OWG) on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) forwarded a proposal for the SDGs to the Assembly. The proposal contained 17 goals with 169 targets covering a broad range of sustainable development issues. These included ending poverty and hunger, improving health and education, making cities more sustainable, combating climate change, and protecting oceans and forests.[3] On 5 December 2014, the UN General Assembly accepted the Secretary-General's Synthesis Report which stated that the agenda for the post-2015 SDG process would be based on the OWG proposals.[4]

The Intergovernmental Negotiations on the Post 2015 Development Agenda (IGN) began in January 2015 and ended in August 2015. Following the negotiations, a final document was adopted at the UN Sustainable Development Summit September 25–27, 2015 in New York, USA.[5] The title of the agenda is Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.[6][7]

 

Contents  [hide

   1

            Background

   2

      The goals

   3

         Post-2015 development agenda process

            3.1

            Critique

   4

            Intersectoral linkages

            4.1

            Water, sanitation, and hygiene

            4.2

            Climate change

            4.3

            Women and gender equality

            4.4

              Economic growth and infrastructure

   5

      See also

   6

            References

   7

                  External links

Background[edit]

The history of the SDGs can be traced to 1972 when governments met under in Stockholm, Sweden, for the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, to consider the rights of the human family to a healthy and productive environment.[8] It was not until 1983 that the United Nations decided to create the World Commission on Environment and Development which defined sustainable development as "meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." In 1992 the first United Nations Conference on Environment and Development was held in Rio. It was here that the first agenda for Environment and Development was developed and adopted, also known as Agenda 21.

 

Official logos for each of the Millennium Development Goals.

In preparation for the Rio+20 Conference Indonesia held a government retreat in SOlo Indonesia in July 2011. It was at this event that Colombia proposed the idea of the SDGs. This was picked up by the United nations Department of Public Information 64th NGO Conference in September 2011 in Bonn where the outcome document proposed 17 sustainable development goals and associated targets. In the runup to Rio+20 there was much discussion on the idea of SDGs. At the Rio+20 Conference, a resolution, known as The Future We Want[9] was reached by member states. Among the key themes agreed on were poverty eradication, energy, water and sanitation, health, and human settlement. Paragraph 246 of the Future We Want outcome document forms the link between the Rio+20 agreement and the Millennium Development Goals: "We recognize that the development of goals could also be useful for pursuing focused and coherent action on sustainable development. The goals should address and incorporate in a balanced way all three dimensions of sustainable development (environment, economics, and society) and their interlinkages. The development of these goals should not divert focus or effort from the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals". Paragraph 249 states that "the process needs to be coordinated and coherent with the processes to consider the post-2015 development agenda".

Taken together, these two paragraphs paved the way to bring together the development agenda centered on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs),[10] which were officially established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, and the agreement under the Future We Want outcome document. The Rio+20 summit also agreed that the process of designing sustainable development goals, should be "action-oriented, concise and easy to communicate, limited in number, aspirational, global in nature and universally applicable to all countries while taking into account different national realities, capacities and levels of development and respecting national policies and priorities".[11]

The MDGs were supposed to be achieved by 2015. A further process was needed to agree and develop development goals from 2015-2030. Discussion on the post-2015 framework for international development began well in advance, with the United Nations System Task Team on Post 2015 Development Agenda[12] releasing the first report known as Realizing The Future We Want.[13] The Report was the first attempt to achieve the requirements under paragraph 246 and 249 of the Future We Want document. It identified four dimensions as part of a global vision for sustainable development: Inclusive Social Development, Environmental Sustainability, Inclusive Economic Development, and Peace and Security. Other processes included the UN Secretary General's High Level Panel on Post 2015 Development Agenda,[14] whose report[15] was submitted to the Secretary General in 2013.

The goals[edit]

Further information: Post-2015 Development Agenda

On 25 September 2015, the 194 countries of the UN General Assembly adopted the 2030 Development Agenda titled Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Following the adoption, UN agencies, under the umbrella of the United Nations Development Group, decided to support a campaign by several independent entities, among them corporate institutions and International Organizations. The Campaign, known as Project Everyone,[16] introduced the term Global Goals and is intended to help communicate the agreed Sustainable Development Goals to a wider constituency. However the decision to support what is an independent campaign, without the approval of the member states, has met resistance[17] from several sections of civil society and governments, who accuse[18] the UNDG of ignoring the most important communication aspect of the agreement: Sustainability. There are also concerns that Global Goals is a term used to refer to several other processes that are not related to the United Nations.

The Official Agenda for Sustainable Development adopted on 25 September 2015 has 92 paragraphs, with the main paragraph (51) outlining the 17 Sustainable Development Goals and its associated 169 targets. This included the following goals:[19]

 

A diagram listing the 17 Sustainable Development Goals

1.No Poverty - End poverty in all its forms everywhere[20]

                     Extreme poverty has been cut by more than half since 1990- however, more than 1 in 5 people live on less than $1.25 a day

                     Poverty is more than lack of income or resources- it includes lack of basic services, such as education, hunger, social discrimination and exclusion, and lack of participation in decision making.

                     Gender inequality plays a large role in the perpetuation of poverty and it's risks; They then face potentially life-threatening risks from early pregnancy, and often lost hopes for an education and a better income.

                     Age groups are affected differently when struck with poverty; its most devastating effects are on children, to whom it poses a great threat. It affects their education, health, nutrition, and security. It also negatively affects the emotional and spiritual development of children through the environment it creates.

2.Zero Hunger - End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture[21]

                     Globally, 1 in 9 people are undernourished, the vast majority of these people live in developing countries

                     Agriculture is the single largest employer in the world, providing livelihoods for 40 per cent of today’s global population. It is the largest source of income and jobs for poor rural households. Women comprise on average 43 per cent of the agricultural labor force in developing countries, and over 50 per cent in parts of Asia and Africa, yet they only own 20% of the land.

                     Poor nutrition causes nearly half (45 per cent) of deaths in children under five – 3.1 million children each year.

3.Good Health and Well-being - Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages[22]

                     Significant strides have been made in increasing life expectancy and reducing some of the common killers associated with child and maternal mortality, and major progress has been made on increasing access to clean water and sanitation, reducing malaria, tuberculosis, polio and the spread of HIV/AIDS.

                     However, only half of women in developing countries have received the health care they need, and the need for family planning is increasing exponentially, while the need met is growing slowly - more than 225 million women have an unmet need for contraception.

                     An important target is to substantially reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from pollution-related diseases.

4.Quality Education - Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all[23]

                     Major progress has been made for education access, specifically at the primary school level, for both boys and girls. However, access does not always mean quality of education, or completion of primary school. Currently, 103 million youth worldwide still lack basic literacy skills, and more than 60 per cent of them are women

                     Target 1 "By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys complete free, equitable and quality primary and secondary education leading to relevant and Goal-4 effective learning outcomes"- shows the commitment to nondiscriminatory education outcomes

5.Gender Equality - Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls[24]

                     Providing women and girls with equal access to education, health care, decent work, and representation in political and economic decision-making processes will fuel sustainable economies and benefit societies and humanity at large

                     While a record 143 countries guaranteed equality between men and women in their Constitutions by 2014, another 52 had not taken this step. In many nations, gender discrimination is still woven through legal and social norms

                     Though goal 5 is the gender equality stand-alone goal- the SDG's can only be successful if women are completely integrated into each and every goal

6.Clean Water and Sanitation - Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all[25]

7.Affordable and Clean Energy - Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all[26]

8.Decent Work and Economic Growth - Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all[27]

9.Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure - Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation[28]

10.         Reduced Inequalities - Reduce income inequality within and among countries[29]

11.         Sustainable Cities and Communities - Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable[30]

12.         Responsible Consumption and Production - Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns[31]

13.         Climate Action - Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts by regulating emissions and promoting developments in renewable energy[32]

14.         Life Below Water - Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development[33]

15.         Life on Land - Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss[34]

16.         Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions - Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels[35]

17.         Partnerships for the Goals - Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development[36]

As of August 2015, there were 169 proposed targets for these goals and 304 proposed indicators to show compliance.[37]

Post-2015 development agenda process[edit]

Since Rio+20 did not elaborate specific goals, a 30-member Open Working Group (OWG) was established on 22 January 2013 by the decision of the UN General Assembly. The OWG was tasked with preparing a proposal on the SDGs for consideration during the 68th session of the General Assembly, September 2013 – Septemb

Sustainable Development Goals

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

Jump to: navigation, search

 

The Sustainable Development Goals are a UN Initiative.

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), officially known as Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development is a set of seventeen aspirational "Global Goals" with 169 targets between them. Spearheaded by the United Nations, through a deliberative process involving its 194 Member States, as well as global civil society, the goals are contained in paragraph 54 United Nations Resolution A/RES/70/1 of 25 September 2015.[1] The Resolution is broader intergovernmental agreement that, while acting as the Post 2015 Development Agenda (successor to the Millennium Development Goals), builds on the Principles agreed upon under Resolution A/RES/66/288, popularly known as The Future We Want.[2] The SDGs were in large measure informed by the oft quoted assertion by United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon that "there can be no Plan B, because there is no Planet B."

On 19 July 2014, the UN General Assembly's Open Working Group (OWG) on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) forwarded a proposal for the SDGs to the Assembly. The proposal contained 17 goals with 169 targets covering a broad range of sustainable development issues. These included ending poverty and hunger, improving health and education, making cities more sustainable, combating climate change, and protecting oceans and forests.[3] On 5 December 2014, the UN General Assembly accepted the Secretary-General's Synthesis Report which stated that the agenda for the post-2015 SDG process would be based on the OWG proposals.[4]

The Intergovernmental Negotiations on the Post 2015 Development Agenda (IGN) began in January 2015 and ended in August 2015. Following the negotiations, a final document was adopted at the UN Sustainable Development Summit September 25–27, 2015 in New York, USA.[5] The title of the agenda is Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.[6][7]

 

Contents  [hide

   1

            Background

   2

      The goals

   3

         Post-2015 development agenda process

            3.1

            Critique

   4

            Intersectoral linkages

            4.1

            Water, sanitation, and hygiene

            4.2

            Climate change

            4.3

            Women and gender equality

            4.4

              Economic growth and infrastructure

   5

      See also

   6

            References

   7

                  External links

Background[edit]

The history of the SDGs can be traced to 1972 when governments met under in Stockholm, Sweden, for the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, to consider the rights of the human family to a healthy and productive environment.[8] It was not until 1983 that the United Nations decided to create the World Commission on Environment and Development which defined sustainable development as "meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." In 1992 the first United Nations Conference on Environment and Development was held in Rio. It was here that the first agenda for Environment and Development was developed and adopted, also known as Agenda 21.

 

Official logos for each of the Millennium Development Goals.

In preparation for the Rio+20 Conference Indonesia held a government retreat in SOlo Indonesia in July 2011. It was at this event that Colombia proposed the idea of the SDGs. This was picked up by the United nations Department of Public Information 64th NGO Conference in September 2011 in Bonn where the outcome document proposed 17 sustainable development goals and associated targets. In the runup to Rio+20 there was much discussion on the idea of SDGs. At the Rio+20 Conference, a resolution, known as The Future We Want[9] was reached by member states. Among the key themes agreed on were poverty eradication, energy, water and sanitation, health, and human settlement. Paragraph 246 of the Future We Want outcome document forms the link between the Rio+20 agreement and the Millennium Development Goals: "We recognize that the development of goals could also be useful for pursuing focused and coherent action on sustainable development. The goals should address and incorporate in a balanced way all three dimensions of sustainable development (environment, economics, and society) and their interlinkages. The development of these goals should not divert focus or effort from the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals". Paragraph 249 states that "the process needs to be coordinated and coherent with the processes to consider the post-2015 development agenda".

Taken together, these two paragraphs paved the way to bring together the development agenda centered on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs),[10] which were officially established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, and the agreement under the Future We Want outcome document. The Rio+20 summit also agreed that the process of designing sustainable development goals, should be "action-oriented, concise and easy to communicate, limited in number, aspirational, global in nature and universally applicable to all countries while taking into account different national realities, capacities and levels of development and respecting national policies and priorities".[11]

The MDGs were supposed to be achieved by 2015. A further process was needed to agree and develop development goals from 2015-2030. Discussion on the post-2015 framework for international development began well in advance, with the United Nations System Task Team on Post 2015 Development Agenda[12] releasing the first report known as Realizing The Future We Want.[13] The Report was the first attempt to achieve the requirements under paragraph 246 and 249 of the Future We Want document. It identified four dimensions as part of a global vision for sustainable development: Inclusive Social Development, Environmental Sustainability, Inclusive Economic Development, and Peace and Security. Other processes included the UN Secretary General's High Level Panel on Post 2015 Development Agenda,[14] whose report[15] was submitted to the Secretary General in 2013.

The goals[edit]

Further information: Post-2015 Development Agenda

On 25 September 2015, the 194 countries of the UN General Assembly adopted the 2030 Development Agenda titled Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Following the adoption, UN agencies, under the umbrella of the United Nations Development Group, decided to support a campaign by several independent entities, among them corporate institutions and International Organizations. The Campaign, known as Project Everyone,[16] introduced the term Global Goals and is intended to help communicate the agreed Sustainable Development Goals to a wider constituency. However the decision to support what is an independent campaign, without the approval of the member states, has met resistance[17] from several sections of civil society and governments, who accuse[18] the UNDG of ignoring the most important communication aspect of the agreement: Sustainability. There are also concerns that Global Goals is a term used to refer to several other processes that are not related to the United Nations.

The Official Agenda for Sustainable Development adopted on 25 September 2015 has 92 paragraphs, with the main paragraph (51) outlining the 17 Sustainable Development Goals and its associated 169 targets. This included the following goals:[19]

 

A diagram listing the 17 Sustainable Development Goals

1.No Poverty - End poverty in all its forms everywhere[20]

                     Extreme poverty has been cut by more than half since 1990- however, more than 1 in 5 people live on less than $1.25 a day

                     Poverty is more than lack of income or resources- it includes lack of basic services, such as education, hunger, social discrimination and exclusion, and lack of participation in decision making.

                     Gender inequality plays a large role in the perpetuation of poverty and it's risks; They then face potentially life-threatening risks from early pregnancy, and often lost hopes for an education and a better income.

                     Age groups are affected differently when struck with poverty; its most devastating effects are on children, to whom it poses a great threat. It affects their education, health, nutrition, and security. It also negatively affects the emotional and spiritual development of children through the environment it creates.

2.Zero Hunger - End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture[21]

                     Globally, 1 in 9 people are undernourished, the vast majority of these people live in developing countries

                     Agriculture is the single largest employer in the world, providing livelihoods for 40 per cent of today’s global population. It is the largest source of income and jobs for poor rural households. Women comprise on average 43 per cent of the agricultural labor force in developing countries, and over 50 per cent in parts of Asia and Africa, yet they only own 20% of the land.

                     Poor nutrition causes nearly half (45 per cent) of deaths in children under five – 3.1 million children each year.

3.Good Health and Well-being - Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages[22]

                     Significant strides have been made in increasing life expectancy and reducing some of the common killers associated with child and maternal mortality, and major progress has been made on increasing access to clean water and sanitation, reducing malaria, tuberculosis, polio and the spread of HIV/AIDS.

                     However, only half of women in developing countries have received the health care they need, and the need for family planning is increasing exponentially, while the need met is growing slowly - more than 225 million women have an unmet need for contraception.

                     An important target is to substantially reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from pollution-related diseases.

4.Quality Education - Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all[23]

                     Major progress has been made for education access, specifically at the primary school level, for both boys and girls. However, access does not always mean quality of education, or completion of primary school. Currently, 103 million youth worldwide still lack basic literacy skills, and more than 60 per cent of them are women

                     Target 1 "By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys complete free, equitable and quality primary and secondary education leading to relevant and Goal-4 effective learning outcomes"- shows the commitment to nondiscriminatory education outcomes

5.Gender Equality - Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls[24]

                     Providing women and girls with equal access to education, health care, decent work, and representation in political and economic decision-making processes will fuel sustainable economies and benefit societies and humanity at large

                     While a record 143 countries guaranteed equality between men and women in their Constitutions by 2014, another 52 had not taken this step. In many nations, gender discrimination is still woven through legal and social norms

                     Though goal 5 is the gender equality stand-alone goal- the SDG's can only be successful if women are completely integrated into each and every goal

6.Clean Water and Sanitation - Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all[25]

7.Affordable and Clean Energy - Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all[26]

8.Decent Work and Economic Growth - Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all[27]

9.Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure - Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation[28]

10.         Reduced Inequalities - Reduce income inequality within and among countries[29]

11.         Sustainable Cities and Communities - Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable[30]

12.         Responsible Consumption and Production - Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns[31]

13.         Climate Action - Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts by regulating emissions and promoting developments in renewable energy[32]

14.         Life Below Water - Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development[33]

15.         Life on Land - Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss[34]

16.         Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions - Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels[35]

17.         Partnerships for the Goals - Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development[36]

As of August 2015, there were 169 proposed targets for these goals and 304 proposed indicators to show compliance.[37]

Post-2015 development agenda process[edit]

Since Rio+20 did not elaborate specific goals, a 30-member Open Working Group (OWG) was established on 22 January 2013 by the decision of the UN General Assembly. The OWG was tasked with preparing a proposal on the SDGs for consideration during the 68th session of the General Assembly, September 2013 – Septemb